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You’ve probably heard the phrase before. It’s a principle which originated in architectural design, but has found its way into other design areas, like industrial design or web design. The idea in itself is simple: your designs should first and foremost relate to the products intended function or purpose. How you interpret the phrase is another thing. Some talk about “form follow function” from a philosophical point of view — that true beauty comes directly from purity of function, whereas other talk about making design decisions based on how the product should function, and that the aesthetics should play a secondary role. In this article I’m going to talk about the latter.


Web design then vs. now

Web design has evolved a lot in its relatively short life span. We’ve gone from the classic black-and-white default HTML pages to the colorful, pixelated Comic Sans-infused websites of the late 90s, witnessed the rise and fall of epilepsy-inducing Flash-websites before we danced our way through the responsive revolution brought along by the smartphones. Now we’ve arrived at what’s becoming the 4th century of the modern web — and the web design business is booming like never before.

Right now a lot of designers try to predict what’s going to be the next big trends in web and UI design. Many predictions are revolving around the same subjects: AR- and VR-technology, the rise of vocal interaction or the buzzword that is “Neumorphism”.

"Neumorphism". Source

What’s going to stick and what’s not is hard to say (even though I’m fairly sure that neumorphism is just a fart in the wind). There was a time when some people didn’t believe in the perks of responsive design or that Flash Catalyst was going to revolutionize the business (I was actually one of them). Predictions are hard, so I’m not going to do those. I’d rather like to make an observation about the current state of web design.


Today’s web design process

Today there’s more things to consider than ever. In the early days of web design you could get a away with a lot of what’s now considered “bad” designs (I’m looking at you, “put-everything-in-a-carousel”-era) as long as you kept your client happy and the users somewhat got what they needed (or at least we thought the users got what they needed). Those were perhaps the only factors you had to account for.

A typical approach to web design

Since then the web has changed. A lot. We have ability to touch, use keyboard navigation, voice control, point and click, wave, exhale (yep, you read that right) and so on. The way we view websites has changed, varying from big screens to small screens, to fold-able screens or watches. The list goes on. It’s easier than ever to create a website or an app. Browsers are becoming more and more alike, devices have common traits and input methods are, even though they are many, somewhat consistent. On top of this we know more and more about our users. We analyze user behavior, conduct user testing or ask the users how they’re experiencing our product. We know about best practices when it comes to how you should or shouldn’t design. Accounting for accessibility is not a choice anymore, it’s your duty (and in some countries, like Norway, you can be fined for not meeting the WCAG 2.0/2.1 requirements) and Google won’t go near your site if it’s not responsive or mobile friendly. All in all we have more factors to consider when designing web pages now than before. The former venn diagram will perhaps look something like this today:

I regret choosing a venn diagram to illustrate this, but I’m not redoing these pictures now

This means that when it comes to web design you can no longer just do whatever you “want”. What I’m saying is that you have several rules or guidelines to follow and it’s within the limitations of these your design will be at its best. It’s also here that the “form follows function” argument grows strong, especially when it comes to accessibility.

When “function follows form”

If you inspect the code on a website you may stumble upon this little bad-boy:

:focus { outline: 0; }

For the non-CSS-people out there: this little snippet removes the default outline you get when you click or interact with an element. Why? Because the outline is often considered ugly. This is a typical example where aesthetics was chosen over accessibility — or function followed form. For a person with Parkinson’s disease who mainly use their keyboard to navigate this outline is necessary.

Let’s look at some other examples, like Tottenham Hotspurs’ website for instance:

The front page of Tottenham Hotspurs’ website

Beautiful, right? Well, yeah — I for one thinks so — but there’s one thing which immediately catches my eye here: the accessibility-toggle at the top.

Accessibility on, accessibility off” — the lesser known Miyagi quote.

If you turn it on you can see that the image fades and the color contrast between the text and image increases. Nice feature, right? Sure, but why isn’t the accessibility option turned on by default? Or better yet, why isn’t the website design accessible to begin with, without user interaction? It seems to me that either the designer or the client wanted to keep the text on top of the image while still keeping the image crisp rather than finding a better, more accessible solution.

Here we have a screenshot of Medium’s iOS-app:

I should charge my phone

It’s stunningly simple and minimalistic, don’t you think? Take a look at the navigation bar at the bottom. You can see that it features icons only, faded ones at that, even though basic rules (like these from Material Design) says that active states should differentiate in terms of shape – not by color only, and that icons should be accompanied by a text label.

So why does Medium stride away from what’s considered a best practice? “The minimalistic design style is part of Medium’s brand identity!”, you’d might say. Well, all I see is another example of “function follows form”. Accessibility and best practices is sidelined in favor of ‘beauty’.


Creativity within restrictions

So where am I going with this? Should we throw aesthetics out the window and blindly focus on a website’s functions or its main purpose? No, of course not, but we should strive to accomplish beauty within in the rules and guidelines we’ve created for ourselves.

What we consider “good” design today may change in the future (it certainly has over the last years), but that doesn’t mean we should casually ignore best practices or international standards in favor of what subjectively looks good. Form should follow function, even if it means you’ll have to change your design or kill your darlings. Some say that rules and guidelines kills creativity and removes the freedom of creation. I don’t believe that. I believe, even though your options are limited, that true creativity lies in the skill to create something unique and beautiful despite the lack of freedom.

To quote one of the writers from the ever-so-popular sitcom “Friends”: It’s easy to write a funny joke. It’s hard to write a joke that’s supposed to fit the narrative and for it to still be funny.